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1.Optimizing Moves to Maintain Final Position

Given an original set of instructions s = ‘URDR’, the final destination is 2 units to the right of the initial position after the character moves up, right, down, and right. If ‘U’ and ‘D’ are deleted, the destination remains the same. The answer 2 will be returned.

Function Description
Complete the function getMaxDeletions in the editor below.

getMaxDeletions has the following parameter:
string s: the original instructions that were programmed

Returns:
int the maximum number of instructions that can be deleted from s while maintaining the destination

Constraints
1 <= n <= 10^5
s contains only the characters ‘U’, ‘D’, ‘L’, and ‘R’.

2. Order Check

Students in a class are asked to stand in ascending order according to their heights for the annual class photograph. Determine the number of students not currently standing in their correct positions.

Example
height = [1, 1, 3, 3, 4, 1]
The 3 students indicated in red at indices 2, 4, and 5 are not in the right positions. The correct positions are [1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 4]. Return 3.

Function Description
Complete the function countStudents in the editor below.

countStudents has the following parameter(s):
int height[n]: an array of heights in the order the students are standing

Returns:
int the number of students not standing in the correct positions.

Constraints
1 <= n <= 10^5

3. Character Reprogramming

A control device has 4 buttons that can be used to move a character around a screen in 4 directions: Up (U), Down (D), Left (L), and Right (R). The movement needs to be optimized by deleting unnecessary instructions while maintaining the same destination. Given the original set of instructions, what is the maximum number of instructions that can be deleted and still have the character reach the destination?

Note: The instructions that are deleted do not need to be contiguous.

Example
s = ‘URDR’

4. Counting Binary Substrings

A substring is a group of contiguous characters in a string. For instance, all substrings of abc are [a, b, c, ab, bc, abc].

Given a binary representation of a number, determine the total number of substrings present that match the following conditions:

  1. The 0’s and 1’s are grouped consecutively (e.g., 01, 10, 0011, 1100, 000111, etc.).
  2. The number of 0’s in the substring is equal to the number of 1’s in the substring.

As an example, consider the string 001101. The 4 substrings matching the two conditions include [0011, 01, 10, 01]. Note that 01 appears twice, from indices 1-2 and 4-5. There are other substrings, e.g., 001 and 011 that match the first condition but not the second.

Function Description
Complete the function counting in the editor below.

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