CS代考 DATABASE SECURITY – programhelp代写

Database Security

• Security 101
• Database Security? • Its importance

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• Mitigation

A bit about me.
• Education • Industry

Security 101
• Security is about protecting assets • Systems
• Networks • Data
• Information security, Information systems security, computer security, cybersecurity
• Measures used to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of systems and information (ACSC)

How do we protect our assets?
• Byprotecting:
• Confidentiality
• Integrity
• Availability
• One may be more important than the other
• E.g.InformationTechvsOperationalTech
• Corporate Systems vs Industrial Control Systems (ICS)
• Implement countermeasures to assure the above

Who do we need to protect the assets from?
• Threat actors
• An entity that is partially or wholly responsible for an incident that impacts – or has the potential to impact – an organisation’s security (ACSC)
• Each have their own motive
• ACSC detail a lot more threats
• FireEye have threat reports
• Risks can be:
• Internal/External
• Natural/Man-made
• Man-made can be: Malicious/Accidental

Why do we need to protect our assets?
• Because vulnerabilities exist: • Technical
• Process • People
• Humans are the “weakest” link – NO.
• Consequences and Loss
• FAIR Framework’s Six Forms of Loss
• You can read more about these here.
Source: FAIR Institute

Source: NIST Cybersecurity Framework
How do we protect the assets?
• Risk Management – understand the risk appetite
• Identify the risks
• Analyse and prioritise
• Action and monitor
• Residual Risk
• Qualitative vs Quantitative
• Risk Management Strategies (CompTIA) • Mitigation
• Avoidance
• Transference • Acceptance

Database security
• Database security refers to the range of tools, controls, and measures designed to establish and preserve database confidentiality, integrity, and availability (IBM)
• Purpose is to protect:
• Data in databases
• Database Management System
• All applications connected to database
• Database Server and associated infrastructure

Why is Database Security important?
• Data→Information
• Reveal insights
• Intellectual property • Trade secrets
• Reputation
• Compliance
• Threats and vulnerabilities exist

Threats and Vulnerabilities
• Database configurations • Data itself
• Sensitive data in DEV., TEST, PROD. environments • Passwords
• User Access
• Human error
• Cloud – deployment model • Third parties/Suppliers

Exploiting the vulnerabilities
• SQL injection
• Buffer overflow • DoS/DDoS
• Ransomware
• Data breach

Deep dive – SQL Injection Attacks
• SQL Injection
• Inserting SQL query via the input data from the application to
• Access and read sensitive data from the database
• Modify data – insert, update, delete
• Extract data
• Execute administration operations/commands – e.g. shutdown
• Consequences:
• Compromised confidentiality, integrity
• Example: SQL Injection
• Can read more here.

• Buffer = temporary storage to store data for a short time –
Deep dive – Buffer Overflow Attacks
generally in RAM
• Overflow = program/application tries to write more data to a buffer that it can hold – so the data leaks into adjacent buffers
• Consequences:
• Compromised availability – application crashes • Data corruption
• Canleadtocorruptedback-upcopiestoo
• Example: Buffer Overflow
• Can read more here.

Other attacks
• DoS/DDoS
• Denial of Service/Distributed Denial of Service
• Disrupting systems/applications in a way that they become inaccessible to intended users
• = Malicious Software
• Designed to harm systems/devices/applications/networks
• E.g. Virus, Worms, Trojan, Spyware, Adware
• Ransomware
• Type of malware
• Encrypts files and data, and a ransom is demanded • Data breach
• Confidential/Sensitive/Personal data is accessed without authorisation by an untrusted user

Mitigations
• Managerial
• Controls that give an oversight of the information system • E.g.Tooltoidentifyandmanagecyberrisks
• Operational
• Controls implemented by people
• E.g.Trainingandawarenessprograms
• Technical
• AkaLogicalControls
• Controls implemented as a system
• Can be hardware, software, firmware • E.g. Firewalls, or Anti-virus
• Function: Preventive, Detective, Corrective
Categories of Security Controls (CompTIA)

Managerial Controls
• Defence in depth
• Risk assessments and management
• Risk Owner? Actions?
• Cloud vs On-premise solutions
• Compliance
• Frameworks
• Standards
• Policies
• Regulations
• E.g. Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
• Regular auditing
• Implement recommendations based on audit findings
• Password Policies
• Need to be enforced – via various operational and technical controls
• DevSecOps
• Integrating security in the development phases

Operational Controls
• User Training and Awareness • Security culture
• Physical security for data centres
• Data centres are where servers sit –
on which databases run
• CCTV monitoring
• Locked doors/cabinets
• Separation of duties
• E.g. for financial or HR functions
• Differential vs Incremental
• Offline vs Offsite
• 3-2-1 rule
• Patch Management
• Test the patches in TEST
environment • Documentation
• Development – e.g. requirements • Configuration – e.g. network
diagrams, IP schema
• Decisions and justification

Technical Controls
• Database configuration •
• Access Control – Lock down user accounts – need
to know basis •
• Strengthen database authentication to reduce risk
of compromised credentials
• Anonymisation of data in PROD environments
• Data masking
• Vaults – data, database, key
• Encryption
• Data in use – even if you encrypt data at rest, you must decrypt at some point for the data to be usable
• Data at rest; Data in transit
• Logging and monitoring
• Activate alerts and notifications – false positives vs false negatives
• On database SQL traffic, user access, user activity
Database firewalls – Rules
• Host-based vs Network-based
Cloud Configuration
• Understand risks associated with cloud solutions
• Access to data
• Security updates and patches
Data Loss Prevention solutions

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